Haratin, the mask of modern slavery

by Luca Catalano Gonzaga

Mauritania is the country with the highest rate of slave population in the world: 140-160,000 people out of a total of less than 4 million inhabitants. The data is reported by the Global Slavery Index 2013 on a study conducted in 162 countries, combining various indicators, including human trafficking inside and outside a country and child marriages. But who are the slaves of the 21st century? They are adults and children considered exclusive property of a master, who exercises full power over their lives and that of their descendants. One is born and dies as a slave; it is a status that is handed down from generation to generation as for the Haratins, the black population for centuries subjected to the minority of Arab origin, which today holds the political and economic power of Mauritania. Although it was abolished in 1981, slavery became a criminal offense and slavery criminally prosecuted only in 2007. For the few slaves who are aware of their rights it is difficult to get justice. The law seems to have been designed to discourage victims. The slave must report his status otherwise the police can not proceed ex officio. The burden of proof lies with the victim who is often illiterate and unable to make a formal complaint. Nor can it be helped to complete the bureaucratic formalities; the many local associations that fight in defense of human rights can not intervene because the law does not allow it. Unsurprisingly, no master has been convicted of slavery since it came into effect. (text by Luca Catalano Gonzaga).

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